Charles, Norman C.; Jakobiec, Frederick A.; Ma, Lina; Belinsky, Irina
A yellow cystic lesion of the caruncle in a 23-year-old woman proved to be a solitary steatocystoma, a rare occurrence in that location. While the histopathologic diagnosis was evident from clusters of sebaceous cells within the cyst wall, a panel of immunohistochemical stains further distinguished the lesion from a keratinous cyst. The most useful stains for differentiating the two conditions were carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratins 17 and 19, and calretinin. Only three previous cases of caruncular steatocystoma simplex have been reported, none of which included immunohistochemical studies. The current findings support the origin of the cyst from the small duct that connects the unilobular sebaceous gland associated with vellus hairs to the follicular canal.
Liou, Victor; Chisholm, Smith Ann; Logunova, Valentina; Havlik, Robert; Esmaili, Neda
Dermatofibroma sarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, locally aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with a tendency for recurrence after excision. Although reports of unilateral orbital and bilateral eyelid disease exist, there have been no prior reports of DFSP with bilateral orbital involvement and no previously described cases of DFSP associated with transient optic neuropathy. The authors present a case report of a 34-year-old woman with a giant scalp DFSP involving the bilateral orbits. Despite radical resection with 5 cm margins where possible, multiple positive margins remained including deep positive margins at the bilateral superomedial retroseptal soft tissue. The patient completed adjuvant radiation for surgically unresectable disease. This case highlights the challenge of achieving local control given the disease extent and infiltration of the bilateral eyelids and orbits. This is the first reported case of DFSP with bilateral orbital involvement and associated transient optic neuropathy.
Segal, Kira L.; Elner, Susan G.; Elner, Victor M.
Purpose: To evaluate the results of permanent medial tarsorrhaphy and to describe the surgical technique.
Methods: Medial tarsorrhaphy was performed on 30 eyelids with symptomatic exposure keratopathy secondary to eyelid malposition. Observational, retrospective review of preoperative and postoperative examination findings was performed.
Results: Average age of the cohort was 66 years (31–91). Medial tarsorrhaphy was performed to correct eyelid retraction (100%), exposure keratopathy (80%), lagophthalmos (57%), and ectropion (17%) in patients with cranial nerve VII palsy (47%), Graves eye disease (13%), eczema (7%), floppy eyelid syndrome (7%), after Mohs reconstruction (7%), orbital myositis (3%), and neurofibromatosis (3%). Seventy-three percent (73%) of patients had an average of 3 surgeries (N = 22, standard deviation = 1.12, range = 2–7) before undergoing medial tarsorrhaphy. Medial tarsorrhaphy was performed in combination with another procedure in 53% of cases. Palpebral fissure decreased postoperatively an average of 1.1 mm (N = 20; p = 0.005), inferior scleral show decreased 0.72 mm (N = 22; p = 0.03), lagophthalmos decreased 0.4 mm (N = 15; p = 0.27), and superficial punctate keratopathy improved by 61% (N = 27; p = 0.009). Ectropion completely resolved in 4 of 10 patients (40%). Seven patients (23%) required additional surgery following tarsorrhaphy an average of 8 months later (range = 2–16). In 1 patient (3%), a tarsorrhaphy opened prematurely, and 1 patient (3%) requested partial opening of the tarsorrhaphy. Average duration of follow up was 13 months (N = 30, standard deviation = 14.97, range = 0.2–45.7).
Conclusions: Medial tarsorrhaphy is a safe and effective primary or salvage technique to address complex causes of eyelid retraction, lagophthalmos, ectropion, and exposure keratopathy.
Ozturk Karabulut, Gamze; Fazil, Korhan
Purpose: To evaluate corneal refractive and topographical changes after Müller’s muscle conjunctival resection surgery on patients with mild ptosis.
Methods: A total of 28 eyes of 28 patients with mild ptosis underwent Müller’s muscle conjunctival resection. Visual acuity, margin reflex distance, and cycloplegic refraction were analyzed preoperatively and at first, third, and sixth months postoperatively. Change in corneal topography was analyzed with Sirius System using parameters including corneal astigmatism (CYL), average simulated keratometry value (simK), apical keratometry front (AKf), symmetry index front (SIf), and central corneal thickness (CCT) at the same intervals.
Results: Best-corrected visual acuity and cycloplegic refraction did not change significantly at all controls postoperatively. The mean change in corneal astigmatism, simK, SIf, and CCT did not show significant differences. Apical keratometry front showed a significant decrease at 3 and 6 months.
Conclusion: The pressure of upper eyelid in patients with ptosis appeared to have resulted in steepening of the superior cornea along this axis. The surgical correction of ptosis induces flattening of superior cornea as shown by significant decrease in apical keratometry front value postoperatively and restores corneal topography to a more regular state.
Dave, Tarjani; Taneja, Shikha; Tiple, Sweety; Basu, Sayan; Naik, Milind N.
Purpose: To assess the outcome of aspiration and sclerotherapy with sodium tetradecyl sulfate in the management of conjunctival inclusion cysts.
Methods: Retrospective interventional case series of 6 patients with clinical diagnosis of conjunctival inclusion cysts treated with cyst aspiration and foam sclerotherapy with 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate. The volume of the sclerosant was 20% of the aspirated cyst volume.
Results: Four patients had an inclusion cyst in anophthalmic sockets and 2 patients in sighted eyes. Average time lag between primary surgery and cyst formation was 14.6 months (range 2–30 months). Average amount of fluid aspirated from cyst was 3.07 ml (range 1–9 ml). Average volume of sclerosant injected was (20% of the aspirated volume) 0.55 ml (range 0.2–1.1 ml). All 6 patients showed complete resolution of cyst at a mean follow-up period of 15.6 months (range 9–24 months). All but one showed complete resolution of cyst with single injection sclerosant. Only 1 patient required a second sclerosant injection. There was no ocular surface or implant-related complications in this cohort.
Conclusions: Cyst aspiration and sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam sclerotherapy is a minimally invasive procedure for the management of conjunctival inclusion cysts in anophthalmic sockets and sighted eyes. The injection of sodium tetradecyl sulfate in a dose of 20% of the aspirate is effective in the management of conjunctival inclusion cysts over a follow-up period of 13 months. The procedure is safe, with insignificant inflammation and without ocular surface or implant complications.
Leyngold, Ilya M.; Yen, Michael T.; Tian, James; Leyngold, Mark M.; Vora, Gargi K.; Weller, Christopher
Purpose: To describe a minimally invasive surgical technique and its clinical outcomes with the use of acellular nerve allograft to re-establish corneal sensibility in patients with neurotrophic keratopathy.
Methods: Acellular nerve allograft was coapted to an intact supraorbital, supratrochlear, or infraorbital nerve and transferred to the affected eye. Donor nerve pedicles were isolated through a transpalpebral or transconjunctival approach. Retrospective evaluation of preoperative and postoperative corneal sensibility, ocular surface, and best-corrected visual acuity was performed in all patients. Mean follow-up period was 6 months (range: 3–10 months).
Results: Corneal neurotization with acellular nerve allograft was successfully performed in 7 patients with restoration of corneal sensibility and corneal epithelial integrity. In vivo confocal microscopy demonstrated increased nerve density in corneal stroma at 4 months after surgery.
Conclusions: The use of acellular nerve allograft allows for a minimally invasive approach to successful corneal neurotization.
Boparai, Ranjodh S.; Levin, Ariana M.; Lelli, Gary J. Jr
Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of treatments for Morbihan disease.
Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a systematic review of the literature was performed on April 1, 2018, using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Excerpta Medica dataBASE with terms used to describe Morbihan disease, including “Morbihan Disease,” “Morbihan Syndrome,” “lymphedema rosacea,” and “lymphedematous rosacea”. Case reports or case series were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: published in English, peer-reviewed, and reported Morbihan disease.
Results: A total of 89 patients—87 patients from 49 articles and 2 cases from the authors’ institution—were included in the final analysis. The median age of patients was 51 years (range: 14–79), and 66 of 89 (74%) patients were men. Male gender correlated with lack of complete response to treatment (odds ratio: 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.06–0.97; p = 0.02), while presence of papules or pustules correlated with complete response to treatment (odds ratio: 4.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.04–17.68; p = 0.03). Longer antibiotic duration correlated with response to treatment (p = 0.03), favoring complete over partial response (p = 0.02). Mean antibiotic duration in patients who responded was 4.43 months (standard deviation: 3.49), with complete responders requiring 6.50 months (standard deviation: 4.57). Oral corticosteroids, isotretinoins, and combination therapies did not correlate with treatment response.
Conclusions: The presence of papules and pustules correlates with a complete response to treatment, while male gender correlates with a partial response. Patients may benefit from 4- to 6-month duration of tetracycline-based antibiotics. Prospective studies are needed to assess the impact of antibiotic and isotretinoin dose and duration on treatment response.
Gostimir, Mišo; Hussain, Ahsen
Purpose: Various factors help minimize pain during the injection of local anesthetic. The majority of current evidence involves nonspecific injection sites. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of all existing evidence for methods used to reduce injection pain specifically in the context of periocular procedures.
Methods: A literature search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted to identify all relevant experimental and observational studies from 1946 to 2018. Studies were included of patients undergoing periocular surgery under subcutaneous local anesthesia whereby outcomes were reported following a specific intervention intended to help reduce pain. Risk of bias was assessed using recognized tools. A subgroup meta-analysis was performed to indirectly compare pooled intervention-versus-control differences for various pain reduction interventions.
Results: Following the review of 2089 search results, 23 articles representing 1135 patients were included. The methods assessed in the studies included choice of anesthetic agent, buffering, warming, dilution, needle type, administration of an inhalational anesthetic, application of topical anesthetics, iontophoresis, skin cooling with ice, tactile distraction with vibration, and decreasing the rate of injection.
Conclusions: Methods demonstrating best efficacy included solution modification (buffering, dilution, warming), skin cooling with ice, vibration, transconjunctival topical anesthetic before injection, and decreased rate of injection. Further study is warranted for modification of equipment factors, topical anesthetics, and strategies to reduce pain because of anesthetic infiltration.
Kenichi Kokuboa, Nobutada Katorib, Kengo Hayashic, Jun Sugawarad, Seiko Koue, Akiko Fujiif, Shoko Hagaa, Jiro Maegawaf
Eyebrow descent commonly occurs after ptosis repair or blepharoplasty surgery. The procedures used to correct acquired blepharoptosis are primarily classified into four groups. These procedures target the levator aponeurosis, Müller’s muscle, both the aponeurosis and Müller’s muscle, or the frontalis muscle. In this study, we used a new technique called external Müller’s muscle tucking (EMMT) on 51 patients (94 eyelids), which targets the Müller’s muscle for involutional blepharoptosis. The patients were assessed by comparative analysis using pre- and post-operative digital photographs. The distances between the medial canthi, in addition to the eyebrow heights at the medial canthus, pupil and lateral canthus, were measured on a computer screen. Eyebrows descended after surgery at the medial canthus in 53 eyelids (56.4%), at the center of the pupil in 55 eyelids (58.5%) and at the lateral canthus in 48 eyelids (51.1%). The mean distances of eyebrow descent in the 94 eyelids were 0.24, 0.51 and 0.32 mm at the medial, center and lateral positions, respectively. The mean preoperative margin reflex distance (MRD) was −0.05 mm, the mean postoperative MRD was 3.79 mm and the mean change in MRD was 3.83 mm. Preoperative MRD and change in MRD were weakly associated with changes in eyebrow position in 94 eyelids. In conclusion, these findings suggest that eyebrow drooping distance is related to the preoperative severity of ptosis.
Akshay Gopinathan Nair, Nayana A. Potdar, Suchit Dadia, Simranjeet Aulakh, Mohammad Javed Ali, Chhaya A. Shinde
To assess patient perceptions regarding medical photography and the use of smart devices, namely mobile phones and tablets for medical photography.
A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 280 consecutive adult patients who presented to the oculoplastics clinic at a tertiary eye care centre. The responses were tabulated and analysed.
Of the 280 patients surveyed, 68% felt that medical photography had a positive impact on their understanding of their illnesses and 72% felt that the use of smartphones for medical photography was acceptable. Respondents below the age of 40 years were more likely to approve of the use of mobile phones for photography as compared to those over 40. Most patients (74%) preferred a doctor to be the person photographing them. While a majority approved of doctors and trainee physicians having access to their photographs, they felt non-physician healthcare personnel should not have access to clinical photographs. Also, 72% of the respondents felt that the patient’s consent should be taken before using their photographs. It was noted that patient identification and breach of confidentiality could be some of the potential issues with using smart devices as cameras in the clinic.
Clinical photography in general and, specifically, using smart devices for clinical photographs have gained acceptance among patients. The outcomes of this study may be utilized to create policy guidelines for the use of smart devices as photography tools in the clinics. The findings of this survey can also help to create standardized, uniform patient consent forms for clinical photography.