Lily Zhang BS, Carolina Mercado MD, Anat Galor MD, MSPH, Edward J. Holland MD, Gaofeng Wang PhD & Carol L. Karp MD
Purpose: Few studies have described ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and its association with atopic diseases and there is no consensus on the course of OSSN in atopic patients. We thereby report three patients with atopy and OSSN.
Methods: Retrospective case series.
Results: Three male patients with mean age of 73 presented with OSSN and history of atopy treated with immunosuppressant therapy. Their histories included atopic dermatitis and keratoconjunctivitis. All patients had treatment complicated by multiple surgeries, recurrences, or advanced disease. The patients initially received medical treatment with topical interferon-alpha-2b (IFNα2b). However, all the patients had recurrences and required modification of treatment including topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).
Conclusion: We report on three patients with a history of atopy whose OSSN presentation and course was challenging. Overall, our cases responded better to topical 5-fluorouracil compared to topical interferon-alpha-2b, but recurrences were common. These patients may benefit from more aggressive and long-term treatment.
Ashley Polski BS, Maria Sibug Saber MD, Jonathan W. Kim MD, Jesse L. Berry MD
Although the most recent American Joint Committee on cancer staging guidelines for ocular surface squamous neoplasia place a heightened emphasis on biopsy and histopathologic analysis, the interpretation and clinical relevance of these staging criteria are not always clear. We address limitations of using histopathologic analysis to predict clinical outcomes and suggest less‐invasive assessments.
To investigate the impact of histopathologic depth of invasion on outcomes for tumours with the common presentation of multiple structure involvement.
Retrospective chart review at tertiary institution.
Of 41 eyes with ocular surface squamous neoplasia between 2012 and 2017, 27 tumours involving multiple ocular structures clinically were included.
Biopsied tumours were determined to be invasive beyond the basement membrane or non‐invasive; non‐biopsied tumours were clinically identified with unknown depth of invasion. Outcomes were compared using Fisher’s exact or Student’s t tests.
Main Outcome Measures
Proportion of tumours cured, recurred and/or persisting.
Twelve tumours (44%) received primary excisional biopsy, 10 (37%) received chemotherapy without biopsy and 5 (19%) received chemotherapy and biopsy. Clinical diagnosis was correct in all biopsied cases. While there were no significant differences in outcomes between invasive vs non‐invasive tumours or treatments, there was a trend toward larger basal diameter in recurrent tumours regardless of treatment.
Conclusions and Relevance
When ocular surface squamous neoplasia tumours with similar clinical involvement were compared, histopathologic depth of invasion was not predictive of clinical outcomes. Future staging criteria may consider the potential of largest basal dimension for more accurate prognostication.
Alexandra Santoni, Juliette Thariat, Célia Maschi, Joel Herault, Stéphanie Baillif, Sandra Lassalle,Marie Laure Peyrichon, Julia Salleron, Jean-Pierre Caujolle
Ocular surface squamous neoplasia includes a spectrum of diseases from dysplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the conjunctiva. Whether the degree of invasion influences outcomes is debated. We evaluated the outcomes and management of conjunctival carcinomas defined as ≤0.2 mm invasion of the chorion (microinvasive; miSCC) or over (SCC).
Retrospective case series.
Clinical, tumor, and therapeutic characteristics and outcomes were collected for consecutive patients with histology-proven invasive conjunctival miSCC/SCC treated between 2002 and 2017.
Patients were 70% men, ≥70 years old (56%), with carcinomas of the bulbar conjunctiva (83.0%). Limbal, corneal, and/or scleral involvement were present in 70.4%, 42.6%, and 27.8%, respectively. Patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, and no-touch surgery rates were similar between the 39 SCC and 15 miSCC. However, mitomycin was performed in 93.3% and 20.5% of miSCC and SCC, respectively (P < .001). Proton therapy was performed in 0% and 92.0% of miSCC and SCC, respectively (P < .001). SCC received mitomycin in case of tumoral resection margins, respectively (P = .018). The 24-month incidence of local relapse was 14.8%, including 20% and 12% for miSCC and SCC, respectively (P = .079). Irradiation was the only prognostic factor associated with a lower risk for local relapse (hazard ratio [0.25]; P = .045). There were 2 cancer-related deaths (2%). Mild/moderate anterior segment complications occurred in one third of the patients.
miSCC had slightly worse relapse rates compared with SCC. Postoperative proton therapy, performed in SCC only, was associated with a lower risk for relapse.
Nandini Venkateswaran, Carolina Mercado, Anat Galor, Carol L. Karp
To compare the efficacy of topical 5-fluorouracil 1% (5FU) and interferon alfa-2b 1 MIU/mL (IFN) eye drops as primary treatment modalities for ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN).
Retrospective, comparative, interventional case series.
Fifty-four patients who received 5FU and 48 patients who received IFN as primary therapy for OSSN were included. Primary outcome measures were the frequency of clinical resolution and time to OSSN recurrence by treatment modality. Secondary outcome was the frequency of side effects with each therapy.
The mean age of patients was 68 years. More Hispanics were treated with 5FU. In a univariable analysis, frequency of OSSN resolution was higher with 5FU (96.3%, n = 52) than with IFN (81.3%, n = 39), P = .01. In a multivariable analysis, treatment modality did not remain a significant predictor of resolution. In patients whose OSSN resolved, time to resolution was similar with both agents, (5FU mean 6.6 months, standard deviation (SD) 4.5 vs IFN mean 5.5 months, SD 2.9, P = .17). Of the 52 eyes whose OSSN resolved with 5FU, 11.5% of lesions (n = 6) recurred, whereas of the 39 eyes whose OSSN resolved with IFN, 5.1% of lesions (n = 2) recurred, P = .46. Kaplan-Meier survival curves of OSSN recurrence were similar between groups (log-rank = 0.16). One-year recurrence rates were 11.4% with 5FU and 4.5% with IFN. Eyelid edema (P = .04) and tearing (P = .02) were more significant with 5FU.
This is the first direct comparison study between 5FU and IFN eye drops as primary treatment modalities for OSSN. Both modalities resulted in a high frequency of tumor resolution and low recurrence rates and are effective treatment options for OSSN.
Meel R. · Dhiman R. · Sen S. · Kashyap S. · Tandon R. · Vanathi M.
Purpose: To study the clinical profile, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) findings, and treatment outcome of ocular surface squamous neoplasia with intraocular extension (OSSN-IO). Methods: It was a retrospective case series of 7 eyes of OSSN-IO treated at our center from March 2015 till December 2016. Results: Mean age of presentation was 53 years. Clinical signs of intraocular involvement were evident in 3 cases (43%). In the remaining 4 cases (57%), it was diagnosed on UBM alone. Mean tumor height on UBM was 5.06 mm (6.6 mm for nodular and 3.8 mm for nodulo-ulcerative pattern). Of 7 cases, 2 were managed with exenteration, 4 cases with enucleation + limited excision ± external beam radiotherapy, and 1 was lost to follow-up. Complete regression was noted in 83% cases (5/6) and they remain disease free at a mean follow-up of 23.2 months. One case died of metastasis at 7 months. Histopathological examination showed well- to moderately differentiated tumor in all cases. Conclusions: Use of UBM in high-risk OSSN cases may help pick up IO invasion. Tumors that are at high risk for IO invasion are thick nodular tumors (> 5 mm), tumors with nodular or ulcerative morphology, and those with prior surgical intervention.
Lindsay A. McGrath & Sachin M. Salvi
No abstract available
Response to ‘Comment on: Proposal for a new classification for ocular surface squamous neoplasia’
Rachna Meel & Rebika Dhiman
No abstract available
Christine A. Kiire, Rosalind M. K. Stewart, Sathish Srinivasan, Heinrich Heimann, Stephen B. Kaye & Baljean Dhillon
To describe the incidence, associations and outcomes of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in the United Kingdom.
Prospective, observational study of every new case of OSSN reported via the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit reporting scheme over a 12-month period. Cases were followed up for 12 months.
The reported incidence of OSSN was 0.53 cases/million/year (conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia: 0.43 cases/million/year; squamous cell carcinoma: 0.08 cases/million/year). Eighty-five per cent of affected patients were male, 97% were Caucasian, and the mean age at presentation was 67.9 (±12.8) years. Information on potential underlying risk factors was frequently unknown. The most commonly affected sites were the limbus and the nasal and temporal bulbar conjunctivae. Most patients presented with a visual acuity of 6/9 or better, without symptoms of pain or visual loss. Excision (with or without additional treatment) was the most common first-line treatment and interferon (with or without additional treatment) was the most common second-line treatment, although management varied widely. Complications of treatment were rare but occasionally severe. Recurrence within 12 months of follow-up occurred in at least 6% of patients.
Although subject to reporting bias, these data suggest that there has not been a significant change in the incidence of OSSN in the United Kingdom, or its demographic profile, since 1996. The broad range of management approaches identified in this study reflect a lack of consensus as to the optimal referral and treatment pathways.
Rachna Meel & Rebika Dhiman
No abstract available
Mendoza P.R · Craven C.M · Ip M.H · Wilson M.W · Coroneo M.T · Grossniklaus H.E.
Aim: To describe 4 cases of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with corneal stromal invasion. Methods: Retrospective, clinicopathologic case series. Results: All patients had prior resections of presumed pterygia. The degree of corneal involvement dictated the extent of surgical management. One eye with localized invasion was treated with lamellar keratoplasty and plaque brachytherapy. Another case with widespread invasion warranted penetrating keratoplasty and eventual enucleation. Two cases were treated medically prior to surgical intervention: one with localized invasion was treated with topical interferon and retinoic acid; another with significant inflammation was treated with doxycycline and fluorometholone. The patient who underwent keratoplasty and brachytherapy had no recurrence after 7 years of follow-up. Those initially treated medically had resections of recurrence but ultimately required enucleation. Histologically, specimens demonstrated SCC invading the deep corneal stroma, with 2 tumors of the mucoepidermoid type. Conclusions: This series demonstrates the importance of maintaining clinical suspicion of conjunctival squamous neoplasia in pterygia. We recommend that all excised pterygia be submitted for histopathologic evaluation and be carefully evaluated for dysplasia and variants of SCC associated with increased risk of intraocular invasion. Undetected ocular surface squamous neoplasia may give rise to potentially vision- and eye-threatening invasive corneal SCC.
Sonal S Chaugule, Jennifer Park, Paul T Finger
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to report on the efficacy and safety of topical chemotherapy alone for giant ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). Methods: In this retrospective, interventional series, 10 eyes with giant OSSN underwent exfoliative biopsy to confirm the diagnosis followed by application of interferon alpha 2b (IFN α2b) and/or 5 fluorouracil, 1% (5FU). Reported outcome measures were tumor response, visual acuity, recurrence, systemic metastasis, and treatment complications. Results: Ten patients (3 female, 7 male) had a mean age of 73 (median, 69; range 40–89) years. Mean tumor diameter was 13.1 (median, 12.3; range 8.2–19.4) mm. Five (50%) eyes were treated with IFN-α2b alone; 1 (10%) with 5-FU alone and 4 (40%) required both IFN-α2b and 5-FU. The mean duration of treatment was 3, 0.5, and 6.4 months for IFN-α2b alone, 5-FU alone, and both IFN-α2b and 5-FU respectively. Complete tumor response was observed in all 10 cases at mean follow-up of 12.8 (median, 11.5; range, 3–25) months. Complications noted were transient irritation and burning (n = 4), dry eyes (n = 2), and transient flu-like symptoms (n = 2). There was no evidence of chemotherapy-related symblepharon, stem cell deficiency, scleral thinning, or corneal opacity. There were no tumor recurrences, and no patient required surgical excision or cryotherapy. Conclusion: Topical chemotherapy was a safe and effective treatment, inducing complete regression in all cases of giant OSSN in this series. There were no sight-limiting complications.