Paul I. Sia MBChB MPhil David Curragh FRCOphth Stuart Howell PhD Dinesh Selva FRANZCO
This study assesses the interobserver agreement on dacryocystography (DCG) and dacryoscintigraphy (DSG) findings.
There are no standard grading criteria to guide the interpretation of conventional DCG and DSG findings and therefore there may be a degree of subjectivity. This study evaluates the level of interobserver agreement in the interpretation of DCG and DSG findings.
A retrospective observational study at the Royal Adelaide Hospital.
A total of 165 patients who presented with epiphora with 276 DCGs and 290 DSGs performed were included in this study.
DCG and DSG images were obtained, anonymized, randomized and interpreted by three independent oculoplastic surgeons. Standard grading criteria were set for both DCG and DSG images. Data from all observers were analysed for interobserver agreement using Kappa (κ) statistics, generated using a variation of Cohen’s kappa for multiple observers.
Main Outcome Measures
Level of interobserver agreement (κ values) in the grading of DCG and DSG findings.
There was an overall moderate interobserver agreement for DCG findings (κ = 0.55), with the highest agreement on interpreting canalicular obstruction (κ = 0.80), followed by proximal nasolacrimal duct obstruction (κ = 0.67) and normal patency (κ = 0.63). There was an overall fair interobserver agreement for DSG findings (κ = 0.36), with the best being moderate agreement (κ = 0.42‐0.50) for interpreting pre‐sac delay and post‐sac proximal delay.
Conclusions and Relevance
DCG offers good reliability in interpreting patent and obstructed systems. On the other hand, DSG has poor agreement and highlights some of the limitations in the ability to guide epiphora management.
Min Joung Lee, Jinku Park, Namju Kim, Ho-Kyung Choung, Sang In Khwarg
To investigate the clinical outcomes of initial conservative management in infants with congenital dacryocystocele.
Retrospective case series.
A total of 30 congenital dacryocystoceles of 28 Korean infants treated between January 2006 and December 2015.
All patients were managed conservatively with lacrimal sac massage. Clinical courses and outcomes of the patients were retrospectively reviewed, and rates of resolution of dacryocystoceles and development of dacryocystitis were analyzed.
In 27 cases of dacryocystoceles without infection, spontaneous resolution was achieved without any complication in 20 of 27 (74.1%) cases after conservative treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 27.5 days. Lacrimal probing was needed in 5 (18.5%) dacryocystoceles that persisted despite lacrimal sac massage for more than 1 month. Infectious dacryocystitis developed in 2 of 27 (7.4%) cases. Three dacryocystoceles were infected at presentation. Overall, 5 dacryocystoceles were complicated with infection and those cases received prompt systemic antibiotics treatment. External incision and drainage of the lacrimal sac was needed in 3 dacryocystoceles, and all cases were finally resolved without any additional procedures.
In this case series, most of the uninfected dacryocystoceles could be successfully managed with conservative treatment alone. In cases with infection, systemic antibiotics were essential and external drainage was sometimes required, but these cases could be conservatively managed after the remission of infection.
Joaquin Gonzalez-Barlatay, Tomás Ortiz-Basso, Carla Pagano Boza, Eliana Segretin Gutierrez, Guillermo Hernández Gauna, Eduardo Jorge Prémoli
To determine whether the history of chronic conjunctivitis increases the likelihood of epiphora after an external dacryocystorhinostomy (Ex-DCR) and to elucidate other factors that may affect the prognosis of this surgery.
This is a retrospective case-controlled study. Patients who had epiphora after an Ex-DCR were compared with patients who did not present epiphora. Medical history of conjunctivitis, use of antiglaucomatous drops, rhinitis, and nasal pathology were evaluated.
A total of 129 adult patients undergoing external DCR were evaluated, of which 73% had decreased tearing. Forty-five percent of the patients who continued with epiphora had a history of conjunctivitis, compared to the 20% of those who did not (p = 0.003). At the same time, the 20% of those who continued with epiphora had a history of rhinitis compared to the 8% of those who did not (p = 0.043).
Patients with a history of chronic conjunctivitis are less likely to improve the epiphora after performing an Ex-DCR. We consider that it is important to evaluate this antecedent before surgery.
Saraniya Sathiamoorthi, Ryan D Frank, Brian G Mohney
Background/aims The literature on the prevalence and demographics of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) is 30–70 years old and largely comprises small sample sizes. This study provides epidemiological findings of this common disorder from the largest cohort reported to date.
Methods The medical records of all children (<5 years of age) residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, when diagnosed with CNLDO from 1 January 1995 through 31 December 2004, were reviewed.
Results Of 17 713 newborns born during the 10-year study period, 1998 were diagnosed with CNLDO, yielding a birth prevalence of one in nine live births. The diagnosis was made in approximately 90% by a primary care physician, at a median age of 5 weeks, with no gender predilection. Compared with the reference population, CNLDO was associated with premature birth (p=0.005) and was more prevalent among Caucasians (p<0.001). Two-thirds of patients initially presented with discharge alone, 18% with tearing alone and 15% with both discharge and tearing.
Conclusions In this large population-based cohort, CNLDO occurred in one in nine live births with no gender predilection. Prematurity and Caucasian race were associated with the development of CNLDO. Mucopurulent discharge was a much more common feature than tearing at initial presentation.
Singh, Swati; Ali, Mohammad Javed
Purpose: To provide a systematic review of the literature on congenital dacryocystoceles (CDCs) and summarize their presentations, investigations, management, and outcomes.
Methods: The authors performed a PubMed search of all articles published in English on CDCs. Data captured include demographics, clinical presentations, investigations, management modalities, complications, and outcomes. Fourteen major series (10 or more than 10 cases) and 89 isolated case reports/series on CDCs with a collective patient pool of 1,063 were studied in detail. Specific emphasis was laid on addressing the controversial issues including initial conservative versus surgical management and the role of endoscopic evaluation.
Results: Numerous terminologies have been used to describe CDC. Congenital dacryocystoceles are rare variants of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstructions and comprise of 0.1% to 0.3% of all such cases. There is a female predilection (64.2%, 683/1,063) and the mean age at presentation is at 7 days of birth. Initial conservative treatment can be a viable option in the absence of an acute dacryocystitis or a respiratory distress. Endoscopy-assisted probing appears to have better outcomes as compared with the in-office probing. Congenital dacryocystoceles with acute dacryocystitis are preferably managed with intravenous antibiotics and an early probing under endoscopy guidance to avoid missing intranasal cysts. Marsupialization is the preferred technique in the management of intranasal cysts. Silicone intubation was rarely used and has no definitive indications. Dacryocystorhinostomy is very rarely needed in the management of CDC.
Conclusions: Congenital dacryocystocele is a commonly accepted term and its use should be advocated to enhance uniformity in reporting. Endoscopic evaluation of CDC is useful in the diagnosis and treatment of associated intranasal cysts and enhances the rates of successful outcomes.
Rizvi, Syed Ali Raza; Sabah, Mehnaz; Saquib, Mohammmed; Mahmood, Faizan; Alam, Md Shahid
Purpose: To compare the cosmetic outcome of the surgical scar of external dacryocystorhinostomy by the subcuticular versus sutureless technique.
Methods: This was a prospective interventional randomized control study conducted at tertiary level hospital. Fifty patients of primary-acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction were included in this study. The control group patients underwent the technique of wound closure in 2 layers, subcutaneous interrupted suture with 6-0 vicryl and superficial skin with 6-0 prolene continuous subcuticular sutures. In the case group, interrupted subcutaneous sutures with 6-0 vicryl with Steristrip for skin apposition was used. The surgical scars were assessed and graded by still photographs on a computer screen by 2 independent observers unaware of the surgical technique used at 2, 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively.
Results: The mean scar assessment score by the 2 observers were 2.60 (0.57), 2.04 (0.64), and 1.16 (0.89) in control group and 2.02 (0.65), 1.44 (0.70), and 0.44 (0.61) in case group at 2, 6, and 12 weeks, respectively. Scar grades were analyzed using chi-square test between the 2 group and Wilcoxon signed rank test within the group. The difference between the 2 groups were found to be statistically significant at 2, 6, and 12 weeks (P < 0.05). Thus, the technique of wound closure with steristrip lead to comparatively less scarring as compared with subcuticular technique.
Conclusion: The authors recommend the sutureless technique of wound closure using steristrip in Ext DCR as it has superior cosmetic results as compared with subcuticular technique of external dacryocystorhinostomy.
Starks, Victoria S.; Yoon, Michael K.
Purpose: We present a series of patients with acquired obliteration of one or more components of the proximal lacrimal drainage system, including puncta and canaliculi. This finding was noted with and without other obstructions or stenoses of the lacrimal drainage system. Review of these patients in search of possible risk factors for this condition and histopathology of two patients are presented.
Methods: Medical records of patients treated at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between 2010 and 2016 with diagnosis codes of lacrimal punctum stenosis, stenosis of unspecified lacrimal punctum, epiphora due to insufficient drainage, and epiphora not otherwise specified were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were excluded if there was a history of congenital punctal agenesis, trauma, or any other identifiable etiology of lacrimal system obstruction.
Results: Twelve patients were identified with obliterated puncta. Most patients were female (n = 11, 91.7%) and Caucasian (n = 9, 75%). The mean age was 61 years (median 62, range 22–90 years). Clinical findings ranged from one involved punctum to all four puncta, and associated ipsilateral canalicular obstruction was noted in 4 patients (33.3%). The inferior puncta were the more frequently affected structures (61.5%) compared to the superior puncta (38.5%). Nine patients (75%) reported use of topical ophthalmic medications prior to onset of symptoms. The most frequent class of medication implicated was topical antibiotics; however, patients often used a combination of medications. In 2 cases, pathological specimens of the canaliculi revealed absence of a canalicular lumen.
Conclusions: Although various combinations of lacrimal system stenoses and obstructions have been described, acquired punctal obliteration is an under-recognized entity. These cases differ from typical punctal stenosis in that the puncta are completely obliterated, and no indication of a punctal opening is clinically detectable. In this study, 3 patients had previously documented normal lacrimal irrigation. The ipsilateral canaliculi were also found to be obstructed in a third of patients. Two patients had complete absence of a canalicular lumen on histopathology. The predominance of inferior punctum involvement, patient history of symptom onset after ipsilateral medication use, and known prior patent irrigation in several cases support the hypothesis that these cases represent a severe yet insidious idiosyncratic reaction to topical medication.
Das, Anthony Vipin; Rath, Suryasnata; Naik, Milind N.; Ali, Mohammad Javed
Purpose: To assess the incidence of lacrimal drainage disorders across a tertiary eye care network in India.
Methods: A 5-year retrospective review of all the patients who were diagnosed with lacrimal drainage disorders across the tertiary care network of L.V. Prasad Eye Institute was performed from January 2013 to December 2017. All the patient data were retrieved using all the diagnostic terms assigned to the lacrimal drainage disorders in the in-house electronic medical record system eyeSmart. The incidence of each disorder, demographic details, and clinical presentations were captured.
Results: A total of 20,102 patients were diagnosed with lacrimal drainage disorders in the 5-year period. The 2 most prevalent disorders were primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (n = 10,364, 51.56%) followed by congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO; n = 5394, 26.83%). The most frequently encountered proximal lacrimal disorder was punctal stenosis (n = 603, 3%). More than 2/3rd of the patients presented with epiphora as their presenting complaint (n = 13,907, 69.18%) followed by a discharge (n = 4023, 20.01%). Although two-thirds of the patient with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction were females (n = 7081, 68.32%), the same was not true for the CNLDO group, where there was a near equal gender distribution (M:F = 1.06:1). Predisposition to laterality was neither noted in primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction nor in CNLDO. The prevalence of complex CNLDO was 16.80% (n = 907), the rest being simple CNLDO. It was easy to capture the incidence of lacrimal disorders with the electronic medical record system; however, the same was not true for the surgical details. The reasons for this were lack of clarity with surgical codes, no separate drop downs for success/failure or complications, and variations in the documentation.
Conclusions: This study depicts the incidence of various lacrimal drainage disorders in a very large cohort of patients. There is a need to modify the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) classification to incorporate all the diagnostic terminologies commonly used so as to capture the real global scenario. The present study helped to further customize the electronic medical record system that caters to the intricacies of lacrimal disorders.
Amun Sachdev, Declan Costello & Simon Madge
In ophthalmology, there have been few reports of botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) injection into the lacrimal gland to treat epiphora. In ENT, adductor and abductor (ABSD) spasmodic dysphonia are often treated with BTX-A injections into the respective overacting vocal cord muscles. We describe a 53-year old male with Parkinson’s disease who did not respond to BTX-A injections to either the lacrimal gland, for epiphora secondary to Parkinsonian-related blink lagophthalmos, or posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles for ABSD. Subsequent BTX type-B (BTX-B) injections into the lacrimal gland remarkably improved his epiphora. BTX-B injections into the PCA muscle also greatly improved his dysphonia. We describe the first reported case of (1) BTX-B injection into the lacrimal gland for epiphora, (2) use of Botox in treating epiphora due to blink lagophthalmos/reduced blink frequency secondary to Parkinson’s disease, (3) BTX-B use in treating ABSD, and (4) association between ABSD and Parkinson’s disease.
Francesco M. Quaranta-Leoni, Sara Verrilli & Antonella Leonardi
Purpose: To report the surgical outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in children treated for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) at a single tertiary eye hospital.
Materials and Methods: The medical records of 44 consecutive paediatric patients who underwent external DCR with silicon tube intubation from January 2002 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Age at the time of surgery ranged from 2 to 12 years. Surgical success was defined as resolution of symptoms, normal tear film height, and negative fluorescein dye disappearance test. This study adheres to the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki.
Results: Four patients had simultaneous bilateral surgery (9.1%). Four patients had redo surgery following previous unsuccessful DCR. The patients’ follow-up ranged between 2 and 10 years. There were no cases of serious immediate post-operative complications, but four children developed subcutaneous emphysema, and in two children operated before the age of 2.5 years agenesis of the ipsilateral upper canine was observed. Of the 42 patients who completed follow-up (46 eyes), 39 (43 eyes, 93.5%) had a successful result with complete cure of symptoms.
Conclusions: Paediatric external DCR can successfully treat CNLDO with a low rate of complications. As the bud of the upper canine may be very close to the site of the rhinostomy when this is performed before the age of 3, it cannot be excluded that the agenesis of the ipsilateral upper canine, an unusual finding in Caucasian populations, might be related to the size and the site of the rhinostomy.