Kalin-Hajdu, Evan; Kersten, Robert C.
Although generally safe, hyaluronic acid rejuvenation of periorbital tissue has been reported to cause minor and major adverse events. The authors document a case of nasolacrimal duct obstruction due to hyaluronic acid rejuvenation of the tear trough. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction immediately resolved following irrigation of hyaluronidase into the affected lacrimal system. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of nasolacrimal duct obstruction due to filler injection.
Hwang, Catherine J.; Mustak, Hamzah; Gupta, Adit A.; Ramos, Regina M.; Goldberg, Robert A.; Duckwiler, Gary R.
Purpose: Hyaluronic acid gel filler-associated blindness is an uncommon but devastating complication. Hyaluronidase can potentially dissolve intravascular filler and improve perfusion; however, its role in filler-associated blindness has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of retrobulbar hyaluronidase on hyaluronic acid gel-induced ophthalmic artery occlusion in a rabbit model.
Methods: New Zealand red rabbits were used to simulate hyaluronic acid gel filler-associated vascular occlusive blindness. Ophthalmic artery occlusion and subsequent ischemia were confirmed by both retinal fundus photography and electroretinogram changes. Retrobulbar hyaluronidase 1,000 IU was injected 30 minutes after occlusion. Fundus photography and electroretinogram changes were recorded at 30, 60, 90, and 120 after administration of retrobulbar hyaluronidase.
Results: A total of 6 rabbits were used, for a total of 12 eyes. Four eyes were used as controls. Of the 8 experimental eyes, 2 eyes had recorded partial occlusion and 6 eyes had fully occluded ophthalmic arteries by angiographic evaluation. One of the partially occluded eyes demonstrated some improvement in perfusion 60 minutes after injection of retrobulbar hyaluronidase; however, electroretinogram readings remained flat over the 120-minute period of observation. Six eyes with completely occluded ophthalmic arteries showed no improvement in retinal perfusion with corresponding flat electroretinogram readings at 120 minutes following retrobulbar hyaluronidase injection.
Conclusions: In this rabbit model, 1,000 IU of retrobulbar hyaluronidase administered 30 minutes after occlusion failed to reverse obstruction or restore function following hyaluronic acid gel occlusion of the ophthalmic artery.
Mohammed Alghoul, MD, FACS
Blepharoplasty is one of the most commonly performed cosmetic surgical procedures. To date it remains the most powerful method of periorbital rejuvenation when compared to other nonsurgical modalities, especially in the aging face. Despite that, the procedure has its shortcomings that include a steep learning curve, prolonged recovery, and potential for appearance and life-changing complications. Attaining successful outcomes relies on a solid understanding of facial topography, patient and technique selection, and, when appropriate, following a conservative approach. Modern blepharoplasty relies on tissue conservation and volume enhancement rather than aggressive removal. This concept was conceived after the realization that older techniques resulted in a hollowed appearance, which accentuated the aging process. It was further reinforced by advances in knowledge of periorbital anatomy and aging changes. This Continuing Medical Education article will detail periorbital surgical anatomy, preoperative planning, and varied blepharoplasty approaches and techniques, with an emphasis on safety and tailoring the procedure to the patient’s anatomy.
Vu, Priscilla Q.; Grob, Seanna R.; Tao, Jeremiah P.
A 51-year-old woman presented with no light perception vision of the right eye 12 hours after another provider injected calcium hydroxylapatite into the glabella and dorsum of the nose. Exam and fluorescein angiography demonstrated optic nerve edema and choroidal hypoperfusion consistent with ischemia of the posterior ciliary circulation. The central retinal circulation appeared intact. One thousand two hundred units of retrobulbar hyaluronidase were injected urgently in several boluses. Oral prednisone and aspirin also were administered. Ocular massage was also initiated. One day later, visual acuity improved to light perception that remained stable at 3 months. Retrobulbar hyaluronidase injection, ocular massage, prednisone, and aspirin were correlated to recovery of light perception vision in this case of calcium hydroxylapatite filler embolization to the choroidal circulation. The mechanism for the recovery of some vision and the role of hyaluronidase and other medications remain uncertain. Further research in treatments for ophthalmic complications of facial fillers is warranted.
Zhang, Pan; Sui, Bing; Ren, Lihong; Yang, Jenny; Ma, Xu; Li, Qingchun; Yang, Daping
Purpose: Among multiple influential factors affecting facial symmetry, the role of soft tissue is often overlooked. Skin and skeletal differences between Asian and Caucasian people also require the adaptation of current techniques for Asian patients. This article aimed to explore the ability of individual facelift techniques to improve facial symmetry and reset youthful eye in Asian people, while a new method, called the grid method, was tried to evaluate the improvement in facial symmetry.
Methods: The authors conducted a review of 58 consecutive facelifts, which were all performed by a single surgeon between April 2009 and December 2016 following institutional review board approval. Among them, 21 patients underwent lower eyelid blepharoplasty. The original frontal photograph of each patient was evaluated by the grid method. Five independent plastic surgeons reviewed the facial asymmetry of the images before and after the operations using a visual analog scale to analyze the facial asymmetry of the patients.
Results: In the preoperative group evaluated by the grid, the mean facial asymmetry score was 4.11, while in the postoperative group, the mean score was 1.07, which was significantly lower than the mean score before the operation (p < 0.001). The change in mean scores illustrated that the technique was effective in improving facial symmetry in Asian people. A total of 8 patients experienced hematomas and recovered well without obvious sequelae.
Conclusions: The individual facelift technique was effective for improving facial symmetry and reshaping youthful eye in Asian people.
K. Hufschmidt, N. Bronsard, R. Foissac, P. Baqué, T. Balaguer, B. Chignon-Sicard, J. Santini, O. Camuzard
Over the past decade, cosmetic injections of dermal fillers or fat have become a popular procedure in facial rejuvenation in an overconsuming society. However, complications such as arterial embolism and occlusion can occur even with experienced injectors, especially in high-risks zones namely the glabella, the nasal dorsum or the nasolabial fold. The aim of this study was to define the vascular danger zones of the infraorbital area in order to provide guidelines helping avoid them.
Materials and methods
The infraorbital artery, its main branches and their anastomoses with neighbouring vessels were studied in 18 fresh cadavers. Mimetic injections of inked hyaluronic acid were performed in the infraorbital area in the interest of analyzing its distribution and to determine potential vascular risks towards the infraorbital artery and its branches.
The infraorbital artery and its branches were located in common injection regions and anastomosed to the supratrochlear artery, the dorsal nasal artery and the angular artery through the nasal branch of the infraorbital artery. Two danger zones could be depicted: injections can be risky when performed too superficially in the midcheek area, and likewise risky when performed in a periosteal layer in infraorbital hollow or tear-trough correction, because of an obvious possibility of retrograde embolism.
The infraorbital artery can be involved in anatomic mechanism of arterial occlusion, further blindness and stroke, among the related neighbouring arteries. Based on the findings of this study, injections to the periosteum layer in tear-trough correction and above the periosteum on the zygomatic arch is not advised.
Hai-Peng Liu, Ying Shao, Bing Li, Meng-Ru Sun, Xiao-Jie Yu, Duo Zhang
With the growing popularity of upper lid blepharoplasty, there have been increasing reports of unsatisfactory outcomes that have necessitated a revision surgery. This study aimed to evaluate aesthetic outcomes of surgical correction of the high eyelid fold using a pretarsal orbicularis oculi flap and to highlight the key practice points of this surgical procedure in secondary blepharoplasty.
A retrospective study of 31 consecutive Chinese patients who underwent revision surgeries between January 2013 and December 2015 was undertaken through a review of medical records. All these patients underwent surgical correction of high eyelid folds using a pretarsal orbicularis oculi flap, with postoperative follow-up ranging from 6 months to 4 years. Postoperative outcomes were reviewed, evaluated, and analyzed.
In this study of 31 women who underwent secondary revision procedure of the high eyelid fold using a pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle flap, mean follow-up time was 8.2 (range 6–48) months. All flaps survived without significant complications. There was no reported incidence of hematoma or infection in early postoperative complications. Clinical effectiveness was satisfactory in most of the patients who underwent fold repair (26/31, 83.9%). However, five patients (16.1%) expressed dissatisfaction with postoperative outcomes; of them, four patients (12.9%) had mild asymmetry, whereas surgical revision was required in only one patient (3.2%).
Secondary blepharoplasty to correct the high eyelid fold is a challenging procedure for plastic surgeons. Use of the pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle flap for correction of the high eyelid fold is safe and effective, with better biomechanics and a satisfying aesthetic outcome. This provides a novel treatment option in limited secondary revision techniques.
KE Hietanen, TA Järvinen, H Huhtala, TT Tolonen, HO Kuokkanen, IS Kaartinen
Keloids have high recurrence rates. Current first-line therapy is triamcinolone (TAC) injection, but it has been suggested that approximately 50% of keloids are steroid resistant. We compared the efficacy of intralesional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and triamcinalone injections in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Forty-three patients with 50 keloid scars were treated with either intralesional TAC or 5-FU-injections over 6 months.
There was no statistically significant difference in the remission rate at 6 months between the 5-FU and TAC groups (46% vs 60%, respectively). Local adverse effects were higher in the TAC group compared to the 5-FU group. Occurrence of skin atrophy in TAC group was 44% and in the 5-FU group 8% (p < 0.05). Also the occurrence of telangiectasia in the TAC group was 50% and in the 5-FU 21% (p < 0.05). Vascularity of the keloids, assessed by spectral imaging and immunohistochemical staining for blood vessels, after treatment decreased in the TAC group, but not in the 5-FU group (p < 0.05). Fibroblast proliferation evaluated by Ki-67 staining significantly decreased in the TAC group (p < 0.05) but increased in the 5-FU group (p < 0.05).
TAC and 5-FU injections did not differ in their clinical effectivity in this randomized study, but 5-FU injections lead to increased proliferation rate and did not affect vascular density in histological assessment. Due to the greater number of adverse effects observed after TAC treatment, 5-FU injections may be preferable for cosmetically sensitive skin areas.