Singh, Swati; Ali, Mohammad Javed
Purpose: To provide a systematic review of the literature on diagnostic and therapeutic indications, techniques, utility, and complications of dacryoendoscopy (DEN).
Methods: The authors performed a PubMed search of articles published in English/German/Japanese/Chinese on DEN. Data captured include evolution and techniques, diagnostic utility, therapeutic interventions, outcomes, and limitations. Specific emphasis was laid on addressing the current practice patterns and existing lacunae.
Results: Diagnostic DEN has enabled the exact localization and differentiation of mucosal edema, stenosis, strictures, and obstructions throughout the lacrimal drainage system (LDS). Guided expansion of the stenosis, laser dacryoplasty (LDP) for strictures and microdrill removal of dacryoliths (microdrill dacryoplasty [MDP]) are some of the therapeutic uses of DEN. Successful outcomes of up to 60%–70% were achieved with stenosis anywhere along the LDS with a restenosis rate of 20%. Longer segment of stenosis (>2 mm), presence of enlarged lacrimal sac, history of dacryocystitis, postsaccal stenosis, and complete obstruction were associated with poorer outcomes. Microendoscopic procedures like LDP or MDP achieve canalicular and NLD recanalization with optimal results. DEN guided-probing demonstrated high success rates in cases with an earlier failed probing. Available dacryoendoscopes allow high-quality image capture (15,000 pixels) with multiple ports for additional instrumentation and irrigation.
Conclusions: Dacryoendoscopic examination of canaliculus and nasolacrimal duct plays a significant role in the diagnosis and management of lacrimal disorders. Further improvements in microendoscopic techniques and instrumentation will expand its clinical usage and give impetus to minimally invasive lacrimal surgeries.
Dacryoendoscopy examinations are increasingly playing a significant role in the diagnosis and therapies of lacrimal drainage disorders.
Nozomi Matsumura, Toru Suzuki, Satoshi Goto, Takeshi Fujita, Shin Yamane, Maiko Maruyama-Inoue & Kazuaki Kadonosono
To examine the causes of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) using dacryoendoscopy, and to evaluate the surgical outcomes of primary transcanalicular endoscopic dacryoplasty.
The subjects of this study were a total of 56 eyes of 46 Japanese children aged one to five years old (mean, 29.1 ± 14.0 months old) with clinically diagnosed CNLDO. The blockage was visualized and probed using a dacryoendoscope (MD10 with a 20 G probe, Fiber Tech Co., Ltd., Japan) under general anesthesia. We used a self-retaining bicanalicular lacrimal stent (Lacrifast®, Kaneka Co., Ltd., Japan) for nasolacrimal duct intubation.
In each case the obstruction was found to be caused by a single focal blockage at the distal end of the duct. A nasolacrimal dacryolith was observed in 5 eyes (9%) and successfully removed using the dacryoendoscope. The success rate of probing by subsequent nasolacrimal duct intubation was 100%. No complications were observed.
We obtained a 100% success rate with primary transcanalicular endoscopic dacryoplasty for the treatment of CNLDO. Direct visualization inside the lacrimal passage allowed for precise probing, even in infants, leading to successful treatment of CNLDO without any complications.
Kosuke Ueda, Akihide Watanabe, Norihiko Yokoi, Manabu Sugimoto, Hideki Fukuoka, Katsuhiko Shinomiya, Shigeru Kinoshita, Saul Rajak & Dinesh Selva
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present a novel technique, as well the histopathological findings, of dacryoendoscopic guided nasolacrimal duct (NLD) biopsy for recurrent nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO).
Methods: This study involved subjects with recurrent NLDO. Direct endoscopic probing or sheath-guided endoscopic probing was used for the initial intubation in all treated eyes, and the stent had been removed at between 2 and 11 months (mean 3.5 months) post-intubation with dacryoendoscopic confirmation of patency and mucosal regeneration. Biopsy specimens were obtained by scraping the recurrent lesion by sheath advancement. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were performed.
Results: In five patients (two males and three females, mean age: 71.2 ± 5.6 years [range: 61–78 years]) with recurrent NLDO, biopsy specimens were obtained from six ducts of six eyes, and stratified epithelium and a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates were identified. IHC staining was positive for cytokeratin (CK)4 and CK13, and negative for paired box protein Pax-6.
Conclusions: This novel technique enabled a minimally invasive biopsy of the NLD to be obtained, and IHC staining indicated the presence of mucus epithelium, thus suggesting squamous metaplasia of the usual respiratory epithelium which likely occurs secondary to chronic inflammation.
Ali, Mohammad Javed
Purpose: The objective of this perspective is to present a separate disease description of “idiopathic canalicular inflammatory disease” and outline the diagnostic criteria and early experiences with its investigations and management.
Methods: Retrospective case series of 44 canaliculi of 22 eyes of 11 patients presenting at a tertiary care Dacryology service over a period of 2 years with typical clinical patterns of inflammatory canaliculitis and its outcomes were studied. All the patients underwent microbiological work-up with culture and sensitivity, dacryoendoscopy imaging, serial Fourier domain ocular coherence tomography, and collagen vascular profiles. Stages in the evolution of the disease were studied. All patients were treated initially with topical steroids followed by punctal dilatation and placement of mini-monoka stents. Five patients in addition had a small biopsy from the inflamed portion of the vertical canaliculus. Stents were extubated at 6 weeks.
Results: Forty-four canaliculi were diagnosed to have idiopathic canalicular inflammatory disease during the study period. There was a female preponderance (81.8%, 9/11) and the mean age at presentation was 57 years. All patients presented with unilateral epiphora without any discharge, pain, or swelling. Collagen vascular profiles and screening for autoimmune diseases were negative. Clinical picture ranged from stages 1 to 5, consisting of edema, progressive centripetal vascularization, pouting of vascularized mucosa, membrane formation, and progressive scarring. The presentation begins in 1 eye and usually involves the other eye at a mean of 6 months. Ocular coherence tomography and dacryoendoscopy were of adjunctive value in the diagnosis. Histopathological examination was suggestive of a chronic inflammation. All patients had relentless progression to end-stage disease, although delayed significantly by steroids and monoka intubation.
Conclusion: Idiopathic canalicular inflammatory disease has a distinct and typical clinical behavior and the current study proposed diagnostic features and disease staging. The use of topical and systemic immunosuppressive agents needs to be explored to formulate effective protocols for its management.
Mohammad Javed Ali, Swati Singh, Anasua Ganguly, Milind N. Naik
Canalicular papillomatosis is a rare disorder characterized by a mass lesion arising from the epithelium as a stalk from one of the canalicular walls. Traditionally, they have been treated with an open canaliculotomy and excision biopsy with or without additional cryotherapy. A patient with upper canalicular squamous papillomas treated with dacryoendoscopy-guided transcanalicular intralesional and topical interferon alpha 2b is presented, and the ineffectiveness of interferons in this case is discussed.
Ramyil, Alice Venyir; Gupta, Shweta; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N.
Canaliculops is a noninflammatory ectasia of the canaliculus and so far only 7 histopathologically confirmed cases have been reported worldwide. The authors present a middle aged female with right-sided bicanalicular cystic swellings associated with punctal agenesis. Ultrasound biomicroscopy showed a cystic dilatation of the canaliculus and dacryoendoscopy showed a cavity lined by whitish canalicular mucosa, thrown into numerous irregular folds with a blind medial end. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of canaliculops. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first description of a bicanalicular canaliculops and its dacryoendoscopic findings.
Mohammad Javed Ali, Swati Singh, Milind N. Naik