Kashkouli, Mohsen B.; Karimi, Nasser; Khademi, Behzad
Purpose of review After failed conservative management, most clinicians treat congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) in a conventional stepwise fashion: starting with probing, then repeat probing, next silicone intubation and/or balloon dilatation, and finally dacryocystorhinostomy. This approach is based on the patient’s age and previously failed procedures and recruits ‘one procedure for all’ CNLDO. A newly introduced approach is based on the type of obstruction and recruits ‘all procedures for one’ CNLDO. The aim of this review is to examine the best available evidence regarding CNLDO management.
Recent findings Recent articles support the concept that through intraoperative evaluation of obstruction in CNLDO, clinicians may predict probing failure and instantaneously employ more appropriate treatment modalities. This review addresses whether an age-based approach should be changed into a one-stage obstruction-based approach.
Summary An age-based approach treats CNLDO as a homogeneous disease and thus treats all patients with one predetermined procedure. A one-stage obstruction-based approach, however, considers CNLDO to be a heterogeneous disease, and therefore allows recruitment of all procedures simultaneously and selects the best intraoperatively. It may allow replacement of the conventional stepwise approach to CNLDO treatment provided that randomized trials verify its efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness.
Jaee Milind Naik, Milind N Naik & Mohammad Javed Ali
Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by broad thumbs and first toes, short stature, microcephaly, delayed milestones, beak nose, and hypertelorism. Lacrimal drainage anomalies are not uncommon in this syndrome. We present a patient with Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome with bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction and left-sided grossly dilated nasolacrimal duct.
Saraniya Sathiamoorthi, Ryan D Frank, Brian G Mohney
Background/aims The literature on the prevalence and demographics of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) is 30–70 years old and largely comprises small sample sizes. This study provides epidemiological findings of this common disorder from the largest cohort reported to date.
Methods The medical records of all children (<5 years of age) residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, when diagnosed with CNLDO from 1 January 1995 through 31 December 2004, were reviewed.
Results Of 17 713 newborns born during the 10-year study period, 1998 were diagnosed with CNLDO, yielding a birth prevalence of one in nine live births. The diagnosis was made in approximately 90% by a primary care physician, at a median age of 5 weeks, with no gender predilection. Compared with the reference population, CNLDO was associated with premature birth (p=0.005) and was more prevalent among Caucasians (p<0.001). Two-thirds of patients initially presented with discharge alone, 18% with tearing alone and 15% with both discharge and tearing.
Conclusions In this large population-based cohort, CNLDO occurred in one in nine live births with no gender predilection. Prematurity and Caucasian race were associated with the development of CNLDO. Mucopurulent discharge was a much more common feature than tearing at initial presentation.
Das, Anthony Vipin; Rath, Suryasnata; Naik, Milind N.; Ali, Mohammad Javed
Purpose: To assess the incidence of lacrimal drainage disorders across a tertiary eye care network in India.
Methods: A 5-year retrospective review of all the patients who were diagnosed with lacrimal drainage disorders across the tertiary care network of L.V. Prasad Eye Institute was performed from January 2013 to December 2017. All the patient data were retrieved using all the diagnostic terms assigned to the lacrimal drainage disorders in the in-house electronic medical record system eyeSmart. The incidence of each disorder, demographic details, and clinical presentations were captured.
Results: A total of 20,102 patients were diagnosed with lacrimal drainage disorders in the 5-year period. The 2 most prevalent disorders were primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (n = 10,364, 51.56%) followed by congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO; n = 5394, 26.83%). The most frequently encountered proximal lacrimal disorder was punctal stenosis (n = 603, 3%). More than 2/3rd of the patients presented with epiphora as their presenting complaint (n = 13,907, 69.18%) followed by a discharge (n = 4023, 20.01%). Although two-thirds of the patient with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction were females (n = 7081, 68.32%), the same was not true for the CNLDO group, where there was a near equal gender distribution (M:F = 1.06:1). Predisposition to laterality was neither noted in primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction nor in CNLDO. The prevalence of complex CNLDO was 16.80% (n = 907), the rest being simple CNLDO. It was easy to capture the incidence of lacrimal disorders with the electronic medical record system; however, the same was not true for the surgical details. The reasons for this were lack of clarity with surgical codes, no separate drop downs for success/failure or complications, and variations in the documentation.
Conclusions: This study depicts the incidence of various lacrimal drainage disorders in a very large cohort of patients. There is a need to modify the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) classification to incorporate all the diagnostic terminologies commonly used so as to capture the real global scenario. The present study helped to further customize the electronic medical record system that caters to the intricacies of lacrimal disorders.
Francesco M. Quaranta-Leoni, Sara Verrilli & Antonella Leonardi
Purpose: To report the surgical outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in children treated for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) at a single tertiary eye hospital.
Materials and Methods: The medical records of 44 consecutive paediatric patients who underwent external DCR with silicon tube intubation from January 2002 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Age at the time of surgery ranged from 2 to 12 years. Surgical success was defined as resolution of symptoms, normal tear film height, and negative fluorescein dye disappearance test. This study adheres to the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki.
Results: Four patients had simultaneous bilateral surgery (9.1%). Four patients had redo surgery following previous unsuccessful DCR. The patients’ follow-up ranged between 2 and 10 years. There were no cases of serious immediate post-operative complications, but four children developed subcutaneous emphysema, and in two children operated before the age of 2.5 years agenesis of the ipsilateral upper canine was observed. Of the 42 patients who completed follow-up (46 eyes), 39 (43 eyes, 93.5%) had a successful result with complete cure of symptoms.
Conclusions: Paediatric external DCR can successfully treat CNLDO with a low rate of complications. As the bud of the upper canine may be very close to the site of the rhinostomy when this is performed before the age of 3, it cannot be excluded that the agenesis of the ipsilateral upper canine, an unusual finding in Caucasian populations, might be related to the size and the site of the rhinostomy.
Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Inanloo, Bahman; Salabati, Mirataollah; Rafizadeh, Mohsen; Tabatabaie, Seyed Ziaeddin; Bayat, Reza; Mahmoudzadeh, Raziyeh
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of inferior turbinate fracture in the treatment of congenital nasolacrimal obstruction combined with first attempt probing in children younger than 36 months.
Methods: This prospective case–control study was conducted on 230 eyes from 176 children aged 12 to 36 months with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. All patients underwent simple probing under general anesthesia. Inferior turbinate fracture was performed in case group combined with first probing. Patients were followed up 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery.
Results: Total success rate was 91.2% for patients with turbinate fracture and 86.4% for patients without turbinate fracture. The difference between success rates was not statistically significant (p = 0.269). The authors did not find significant difference between cases and controls in age subgroups. Success rate in combined case and control groups in patients younger than 24 months (success rate: 91.7%) was significantly higher than those older than 24 months (success rate: 71.9%; p = 0.001). In univariate logistic regression analysis, age ≥24 months showed a negative association with the success rate (odds ratio = 0.232; 95% confidence interval: 0.91–0.59; p = 0.002). Other factors like sex, bilaterality of nasolacrimal duct obstruction, method of probing were not significantly associated with response to treatment.
Conclusions: Inferior turbinate fracture does not improve the outcomes of simple probing and is not recommended during the first attempt in treatment of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Late probing (after 24 months of age) may have a higher failure rate, and increased age is the important factor that predicts failure in probing simple congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
Pradhnya Sen, MS; Elesh Jain, DOMS, DNB; Amit Mohan, MS; Amit Kumar, MD
To assess the success rate of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with silicone intubation for recurrent lacrimal abscess in children younger than 6 years.
A single-center retrospective analysis of 46 eyes of 40 children who underwent DCR with silicone tube intubation for recurrent lacrimal abscess was done. Probing done previously in these cases was unsuccessful. Only those children who underwent incision and drainage of the abscess at least once with antibiotic treatment were included in the study. In all cases, silicone tube removal was done after 3 months. A successful outcome was defined as the absence of subjective complaints of pain and swelling over the medial canthal area and watering and discharge at 6 months postoperatively. Objective assessment of patency of the lacrimal apparatus was done by sac syringing at 6 months postoperatively.
The mean age at surgery was 4.93 ± 0.93 years (range: 3 to 6 years) and the mean follow-up duration was 11.80 ± 11.87 months (range: 6 to 84 months). Intra-operative difficulties encountered were excessive perisac adhesion (n = 28) and severe bleeding/hemorrhage (n = 24). A total of 82.61% cases had a successful outcome after DCR with silicon tube intubation. One child had granuloma formation at the wound. Spontaneous tube extrusion occurred in three children.
DCR with silicone tube intubation is a safe and effective surgical approach with satisfactory outcomes for treating recurrent lacrimal abscess with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in children younger than 6 years.
Vaishali Lalit Une, MS; Sushma Subhash Kulkarni, MS, DNB; Varsha Sharad Nandedkar, MS
To determine the effect of probing for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in children older than 2 years.
A prospective interventional case series included 110 eyes of 94 patients with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) aged 2 years or older, with no previous intervention. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings (epiphora, discharge, regurgitation test, and fluorescein dye disappearance test). The children were divided into two groups: 2 to 5 years and 6 to 8 years. Probing of the nasolacrimal duct under general anesthesia was done. Success was predefined as resolution of symptoms and signs that persisted 3 months postoperatively. Another probing was done at 4 to 6 weeks when necessary before considering the final outcome as a failure. The chi-square test was used to analyze the result.
Patients’ ages ranged from 2 to 8 years (average age: 55 months). Twenty-six (28%) patients needed a second probing. The overall success rate was 80%: 85% in the 2 to 5 years group and 73% in the 6 to 8 years group. The success rate was significantly lower in patients with complex obstruction (33.3%). The outcome of probing was not affected by the age of the patients (P = .2305).
Probing is a viable primary surgical option in CNLDO in older children and hence should not be withheld in children who are referred late.
Nozomi Matsumura, Toru Suzuki, Satoshi Goto, Takeshi Fujita, Shin Yamane, Maiko Maruyama-Inoue & Kazuaki Kadonosono
To examine the causes of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) using dacryoendoscopy, and to evaluate the surgical outcomes of primary transcanalicular endoscopic dacryoplasty.
The subjects of this study were a total of 56 eyes of 46 Japanese children aged one to five years old (mean, 29.1 ± 14.0 months old) with clinically diagnosed CNLDO. The blockage was visualized and probed using a dacryoendoscope (MD10 with a 20 G probe, Fiber Tech Co., Ltd., Japan) under general anesthesia. We used a self-retaining bicanalicular lacrimal stent (Lacrifast®, Kaneka Co., Ltd., Japan) for nasolacrimal duct intubation.
In each case the obstruction was found to be caused by a single focal blockage at the distal end of the duct. A nasolacrimal dacryolith was observed in 5 eyes (9%) and successfully removed using the dacryoendoscope. The success rate of probing by subsequent nasolacrimal duct intubation was 100%. No complications were observed.
We obtained a 100% success rate with primary transcanalicular endoscopic dacryoplasty for the treatment of CNLDO. Direct visualization inside the lacrimal passage allowed for precise probing, even in infants, leading to successful treatment of CNLDO without any complications.
Nandini Bothra, Milind N. Naik & Mohammad Javed Ali
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to report the outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (PEnDCR) in pediatric patients.
Methods: A single-center, single surgeon, retrospective, interventional, non-comparative case series was performed on all pediatric patients who underwent PEnDCR between July 2014 and July 2017. Patients with associated congenital anomalies like single punctum agenesis or lacrimal fistula were excluded. Surgery was performed as per standard protocols published earlier. Data collected include demographics, clinical presentations, past interventions, indications for the surgery, intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative ostium characteristics, and anatomical and functional success.
Results: Ninety-one eyes of 83 children underwent PEnDCR during the study period. Mean age was 8.32 years and epiphora was the most common presentation (81%, 74/91). The most common indication for PEnDCR was persistent congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction refractory to earlier interventions of probing or intubation. Postoperative ostium assessment at 4 weeks showed a well-healed ostium with a dynamic internal common opening in 86.8% of the eyes. Edge granulomas of the ostium were the most common abnormal finding in the postoperative period (9.8%, 9/91) and all except one could be managed conservatively. At 6 months follow-up, five eyes showed anatomical failure and additional two eyes showeXd functional failure. Two of anatomical failure group and one of functional failure underwent a second intervention. The final anatomical and functional success were noted in 96.7% (88/91) and 95.6% (87/91), respectively.
Conclusions: This study shows that PEnDCR is a safe surgery for pediatric populations with a high success rate of beyond 95%.