Nandini Venkateswaran, Carolina Mercado, Anat Galor, Carol L. Karp
To compare the efficacy of topical 5-fluorouracil 1% (5FU) and interferon alfa-2b 1 MIU/mL (IFN) eye drops as primary treatment modalities for ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN).
Retrospective, comparative, interventional case series.
Fifty-four patients who received 5FU and 48 patients who received IFN as primary therapy for OSSN were included. Primary outcome measures were the frequency of clinical resolution and time to OSSN recurrence by treatment modality. Secondary outcome was the frequency of side effects with each therapy.
The mean age of patients was 68 years. More Hispanics were treated with 5FU. In a univariable analysis, frequency of OSSN resolution was higher with 5FU (96.3%, n = 52) than with IFN (81.3%, n = 39), P = .01. In a multivariable analysis, treatment modality did not remain a significant predictor of resolution. In patients whose OSSN resolved, time to resolution was similar with both agents, (5FU mean 6.6 months, standard deviation (SD) 4.5 vs IFN mean 5.5 months, SD 2.9, P = .17). Of the 52 eyes whose OSSN resolved with 5FU, 11.5% of lesions (n = 6) recurred, whereas of the 39 eyes whose OSSN resolved with IFN, 5.1% of lesions (n = 2) recurred, P = .46. Kaplan-Meier survival curves of OSSN recurrence were similar between groups (log-rank = 0.16). One-year recurrence rates were 11.4% with 5FU and 4.5% with IFN. Eyelid edema (P = .04) and tearing (P = .02) were more significant with 5FU.
This is the first direct comparison study between 5FU and IFN eye drops as primary treatment modalities for OSSN. Both modalities resulted in a high frequency of tumor resolution and low recurrence rates and are effective treatment options for OSSN.
Sonal S Chaugule, Jennifer Park, Paul T Finger
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to report on the efficacy and safety of topical chemotherapy alone for giant ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). Methods: In this retrospective, interventional series, 10 eyes with giant OSSN underwent exfoliative biopsy to confirm the diagnosis followed by application of interferon alpha 2b (IFN α2b) and/or 5 fluorouracil, 1% (5FU). Reported outcome measures were tumor response, visual acuity, recurrence, systemic metastasis, and treatment complications. Results: Ten patients (3 female, 7 male) had a mean age of 73 (median, 69; range 40–89) years. Mean tumor diameter was 13.1 (median, 12.3; range 8.2–19.4) mm. Five (50%) eyes were treated with IFN-α2b alone; 1 (10%) with 5-FU alone and 4 (40%) required both IFN-α2b and 5-FU. The mean duration of treatment was 3, 0.5, and 6.4 months for IFN-α2b alone, 5-FU alone, and both IFN-α2b and 5-FU respectively. Complete tumor response was observed in all 10 cases at mean follow-up of 12.8 (median, 11.5; range, 3–25) months. Complications noted were transient irritation and burning (n = 4), dry eyes (n = 2), and transient flu-like symptoms (n = 2). There was no evidence of chemotherapy-related symblepharon, stem cell deficiency, scleral thinning, or corneal opacity. There were no tumor recurrences, and no patient required surgical excision or cryotherapy. Conclusion: Topical chemotherapy was a safe and effective treatment, inducing complete regression in all cases of giant OSSN in this series. There were no sight-limiting complications.
Raffaele Parrozzani, Luisa Frizziero, Sara Trainiti, Ilaria Testi, Giacomo Miglionico, Elisabetta Pilotto, Stella Blandamura, Ambrogio Fassina, Edoardo Midena
Aims To report long-term clinical outcome of topical 1% 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) as a sole treatment of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN).
Methods 41 patients affected by OSSN were included. Each patient underwent full ophthalmological examination at baseline, with cytological or histological confirmation. Patients were treated by topical chemotherapy with 1% 5-FU four times a day for 4 weeks. One course was defined as 4 weeks of topical chemotherapy. Adjunctive courses were administered after 1 month of chemotherapy-free interval.
Results Mean follow-up was 105±32 months (range 60–171 months). Complete tumour regression was achieved in 34 cases (83%) after a mean of 1.5 courses (range, 1–3 courses). Univariate analysis revealed that complete response was significantly related to tumour thickness <1.5 mm (p=0.005), lack of fornix or tarsal involvement (p=0.015 and p=0.009, respectively) and the absence of multifocality (p=0.002). Histopathological diagnosis (intraepithelial neoplasia vs squamous cell carcinoma, p=0.019) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification (T1 vs T2 or T3) (p=0.028) were also related to incomplete tumour response. In a multivariate analysis, just tumour thickness >1.5 mm (p=0.045) and multifocality (p=0.023) were correlated with incomplete tumour response. Transient and reversible low-to-mild local side effects were documented in 19 (48%) eyes.
Conclusion Topical 5-FU, as a sole therapy, is a long-term safe and effective treatment for patients affected by preinvasive OSSN and for a limited proportion (50%) of invasive OSSN.
Mayuresh P. Naik, Anuj Mehta, Sangeeta Abrol, Sandeep Kumar & Vishnu S. Gupta
To determine the safety and efficacy of topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 5% ointment in treatment of non-syndromic multifocal basal cell carcinoma. A 55-year-old male patient, with 8 hours of daily sun exposure, having histologically proven and radiologically non-syndromic, multifocal basal cell carcinoma with involvement of 6 sites on the face, was treated with topical 5-FU 5% ointment twice daily over all sites except the site involving lid margin to prevent corneal toxicity. Left lid lesion underwent wide surgical excision with 5-mm clear margins and reconstruction with nasal septal mucoperichondrium and local skin mobilization. Pharmacologic effects first appeared at 4 weeks and by 8 weeks, the lesions had scabbed and had fallen off with no induration but residual mild perilesional erythema. Patient had post-op histopathological clear margins and recovered uneventfully. No recurrence in 6 months. A topical 5-FU 5% ointment represents a paradigm shift in the treatment of BCC from invasive and disfiguring options (surgery and chemoradiotherapy) to cheap, convenient, effective, non-invasive, non-disfiguring topical chemotherapy. Topical 5% 5-FU is a safe and effective modality of treatment of superficial spreading multifocal basal carcinoma, especially lesions larger than 10 mm, where margins cannot be identified clearly and recurrent lesions.