Orbital Septum Fibrosis in Congenital Ptosis Correlates With Eyelid Function: A Clinicopathologic Study
Heisel, Curtis J.; Heider, Amer; Stewart, Krista J.; Andrews, Christopher A.; Kahana, AlonRead More
Purpose: Congenital ptosis can threaten visual function and is usually treated with surgical correction. This study tests the hypothesis that congenital ptosis involves not only the levator muscle but also the orbital septum, which may tether the eyelid in the primary position.
Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 30 patients (41 eyelids) with congenital ptosis who underwent surgical correction that included partial septum excision. Histologic analysis was performed by a masked pediatric pathologist, with grading of septal tissue disorganization and fibrosis based on standard histologic criteria. An independent comparison of histologic grading with clinical ptosis measures was then performed.
Results: Fifteen eyelids demonstrated significant septal fibrosis, 19 were mild, and 7 were not fibrotic. Thirty-six eyelids demonstrated histologic disorganization. Mildly fibrotic eyelids were found to have reduced preoperative levator function than those that were not fibrotic (2.84 ± 1.92 vs. 9.57 ± 4.76 mm; p < 0.0001). Samples that demonstrated significant fibrosis were also found to have reduced preoperative levator function (4.67 ± 2.12 vs. 9.57 ± 4.76 mm; p = 0.0007). Histologically disorganized samples were also found to have a lower preoperative levator function (9.50 ± 6.04 vs. 3.99 ± 2.49; p = 0.0052).
Conclusions: Orbital septae in patients with congenital ptosis demonstrate histologic disorganization and fibrosis. When decreased levator function is observed clinically, septal fibrosis and/or disorganization is likely present. These observations suggest that debulking the fibrotic septum during congenital ptosis surgery may improve outcomes by releasing the eyelid from its congenitally tethered position, improving eyelid elasticity.