Rachna Agarwal, Shabari Pal, Nandita Chaudhary, Kumudini Sharma, Vikas Kanaujia
Schwannomas involving the perilimbal conjunctiva is an extremely rare clinical entity and has been reported scantily in literature. In this case, a 27-year-old healthy female presented with a pinkish smooth globular mass involving the limbus in the superonasal quadrant of the left eye. The mass was completely excised and histopathology revealed an encapsulated tumor, with cells displaying elongated nuclei, bland chromatin, and few Verocay bodies with palisaded nuclei, suggestive of schwannoma. Immunohistochemistry showed strong S100 positivity. This case thus highlights schwannoma as a differential diagnosis of limbal masses.
Swathi Kaliki, Sai Divya Jajapuram
PURPOSE: The purpose was to study the clinical features, treatment, and outcome of retinoblastoma (RB) in neonates. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of five patients with RB detected in the 1st month of life. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis of RB was 22 days (median, 24 days; range, 14–28 days). There were one female and four males with neonatal RB. Two patients had a known family history of RB, and the tumor was detected by routine fundus screening in these children. Two patients were brought in with complaints of leukocoria and one patient with complaints of red-eye. All patients had an intraocular tumor at presentation. Four patients had bilateral involvement, whereas only one had unilateral involvement. Based on the International Classification of Intraocular Retinoblastoma, the tumors were classified as Group A (n = 2), Group B (n = 3), Group C (n = 1), Group D (n = 1), and Group E (n = 2). Macular involvement was noted in 6 (67%) eyes. The primary treatment included systemic chemotherapy with/without focal treatment in all patients. One patient subsequently underwent secondary enucleation as the globe became phthisical. One child died while on treatment due to pneumonia secondary to chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Of the four patients who completed treatment, globe salvage was achieved in 6 (86%) eyes over a mean follow-up period of 89 months (median, 92 months; range, 29–144 months). CONCLUSION: Neonatal RB though rare, if detected early, has a favorable outcome of ocular and life salvage. Sporadic RB can occur in neonates, and a family history may not always be elicited.
Abdullah S Al-Mujaini
The periocular area is one of the most sensitive sites in the human body and is an important component in the maintenance of a youthful appearance. As such, any esthetic procedures in this area should be performed by specialists with the necessary level of expertise. Over the last two decades, the number of patients undergoing esthetic procedures in and around this area – such as neurotoxin injectables, soft tissue augmentation, chemical peels, and laser treatments – has risen dramatically, despite the lack of safety measures and the risk of complications associated with some of these modalities. Accordingly, the question remains as to whether patients are sufficiently aware of the potential complications associated with such procedures……
Sai Divya Jajapuram, Dilip K Mishra, Swathi Kaliki
Schwannoma is a rare benign tumor, which is more commonly found elsewhere in the body along myelin-producing peripheral nerves and is rarely reported within the eye. In this report, we describe two adult patients presenting with a choroidal mass lesion and neovascular glaucoma who underwent enucleation with clinical differential diagnoses of choroidal melanoma and choroidal hemangioma. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of choroidal schwannoma. This case series highlights the variable presentation of intraocular schwannoma and how they masquerade as other choroidal tumors.
Jeffrey F McMahon, Pascal Jabbour, Carol L Shields
Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) continues to provide a globe-sparing alternative as primary treatment for retinoblastoma with few adverse events. While there is growing evidence to highlight the utility of IAC in children with retinoblastoma, adult cases treated with primary IAC have not previously been characterized. We describe a rare case of Group D retinoblastoma in a 23-year-old adult treated successfully with IAC and intravitreal chemotherapy. This is a retrospective case report of a single patient. Subsequent to IAC and intravitreal chemotherapeutic treatments, at last follow-up 14 months following initial presentation and 8 months since last treatment, the retinoblastoma demonstrated complete regression into a partially calcified scar, with complete resolution of intravitreal and subretinal seeds and no evidence of tumor recurrence. Visual acuity improved to 20/30 in the left eye. There were no adverse events from therapy. Despite its rarity, it is important to consider retinoblastoma in the differential diagnosis of a white mass, even in an adult. Furthermore, this case highlights the utility of IAC for retinoblastoma, despite older patient age.
Swati Singh, Akshay Gopinathan Nair, Md Shahid Alam, Bipasha Mukherjee
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the outcomes of lacrimal gland injections of botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) for epiphora secondary to lacrimal drainage disorders and functional epiphora. METHODS: This was a retrospective interventional case series where cases were divided into functional and nonfunctional epiphora. RESULTS: A total of 37 eyes of 31 patients were identified: 13 males and 18 females. The mean age was 52 years (median = 53, range 29–86). The functional epiphora group had seven patients (8 eyes), subcategorized into hypersecretion (5), crocodile tears (1), and post seventh nerve palsy (1). Obstructive group (nonfunctional) had 24 patients (29 eyes), subcategorized into proximal canalicular block (12), common canalicular block (6), punctal stenosis (3), posttraumatic nasolacrimal duct obstruction (1), and partial nasolacrimal duct obstruction (1). Median preinjection Munk scores were similar in both groups (Grade 4). At 1 month, the median Munk score improved to 1 and 2 in functional and nonfunctional groups, respectively, after receiving a median dose of 4 units of BoNTA. Median reduction in Munk score was 75% in functional group versus 50% in nonfunctional group (P = 0.07). No difference in terms of complications was noted (transient ptosis). CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in epiphora after lacrimal gland injection of botulinum toxin is seen in cases with functional epiphora as well as those with a physical obstruction in the lacrimal drainage pathway. While the symptomatic improvement was more in functional epiphora, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant.
Sweta Singh, Jaidrath Kumar, Ankit Abhishek
A 10-month-old male child presented in our pediatric ophthalmology clinic with “raccoon eyes,” subconjunctival hemorrhage, proptosis [Figure 1]a, and swelling around both ears [Figure 1]b. The mother informed that the infant had been very irritable for 1 week and had developed this symptom recently which has been rapidly progressive.
Nandini Bothra, Swathi Kaliki, Swarnalata Gowrishankar, S Anuradha
Isolated eyelid Rosai–Dorfman disease without orbital disease or systemic involvement is very rare and needs a high degree of suspicion. In this report, we describe a 16-year-old boy who presented with isolated eyelid Rosai–Dorfman disease involving the right upper eyelid. The lesion was treated by surgical debulking followed by intralesional steroid injection for the residual lesion. The child did well with no evidence of recurrence of the lesion at 1-year follow-up.
Marian Pauly, Mekhla Naik, Krishnakumar Subramanian, Giridhar Anantharaman
Rosai–Dorfman Disease also called as Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy is a rare, benign, idiopathic histiocytic proliferative disorder that occurs predominantly in children and young adults. Orbital involvement can occur in 11% of cases. Isolated lacrimal gland involvement without any local or systemic recurrence is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases have been reported in the literature till date. Histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation is essential in establishing the diagnosis. A benign course is usual, but in some cases, blindness or even fatality may result. We report a case of 30-year-old female with isolated lacrimal gland involvement and 19 months’ follow-up.
Sunday Nnamdi Okonkwo, Tayyab Afghani, Maheen Akbar, Amna Manzoor, Muhammad Asif
Glial heterotopia is a rare congenital mass that often presents as a unilateral mass lesion in or around the nose. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice. However, before any surgical intervention for suspected glial heterotopia, distinction should be made both clinically and radiologically from the pathologically related encephalocele to prevent the risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis. Here, we report a rare case of bilateral orbital glial heterotopia in a 2-year-old child with review of the literature.